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There are several components that are necessary for a peer-to-peer network to function. By defining the particular roles and requirements of these components we can develop standard interfaces that allow for the replacement of these services in applications with various implementations.

The things necessary to have a peer-to-peer network are as follows: initial introduction, transitive introduction, file transfers, firewall transgression, and reputation management.

Additionally, there are several services which are obviously useful:

File searching, searching for non-file information, anonymization, dynamic IP management, and access to existing P2P networks.

All of these components can be grouped into three categories of basic functionality:

Search Engines
Intermediaries
File Access

Additionally, there is another useful type of service, a Redirector.

Here is a quick breakdown of the types of components:

Search Engine

    Initial Introduction
    File Searching
    Non-file Information Searching

Intermediary
    Firewall Transgression
    Anonymization

File Access
    All existing P2P file-sharing networks
      Mnet
      Swarmcast
      BitTorrent
      Freenet
      Chord

Redirector
    Dynamic IP
    URL shortener